The separate classes of our ideas and their differences explained simply.

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An investigation into our own cognition as rational beings can be such a productive exercise if done properly. What better way is there to understand than to attempt to grasp our own understanding?

This is why regularly ranks among my favorite areas of philosophy. My undisputed favorite book on the subject is by

John Locke seems to be more commonly remembered for his political philosophy. Which I consider a shame because I’ve yet to come across a more comprehensive breakdown of knowledge and how we gather it than his Essay.

As such…


Important sources and useful texts to keep on your shelf

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You’ve probably seen at least a hundred variations of the book-recommendation list articles. Usually, as they pertain to philosophy, these are recommendations of primary sources, like the work of a famous philosopher. Typically they are also marketed towards people looking to pick up their first or second book on the subject.

This is not one of those articles.

The targeted-demographic for this list will be someone who already has a solid-footing in philosophy. The books on this list will serve as references that will help deepen your understanding of the topics and terms you are already a little familiar with.


An overview of the central figures and key disputes in one of the most important times in philosophy’s history.

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The modern period of philosophy, depending on who you ask, begins around the late 16th century and extends to the late 18th century or even later.

Some will say that it began earlier or that it extended much further. That’s irrelevant, though, as the purpose of this article is to familiarize you with the most substantive material which took place in the timeframe I mentioned.

Much of which you have probably already heard of to some extent. Things like , , and various arguments about .

In addition, we’ll explore the big names responsible…


The philosophical case for avoiding lies like the plague.

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Truth is a complicated concept, especially if you’re speaking about it in a philosophical context. In colloquial situations, we tend to take its meaning for granted.

As with any other concept, there’s been plenty of discussion in the philosophical literature about .

Of course, that’s an important subject to talk about and maybe I will in a future article, but it’s unnecessary for our purposes here. For the sake of the discussion at hand, we can refer to truth in the informal ordinary fashion and presuppose whatever that entails.

I’d like to emphasize…


The purpose and applications of music in a well-organized society.

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As far as entertainment goes, music seems to be unanimously enjoyed among humans.

Music just seems to be something that is ingrained in us as people. Our music preferences may differ from person to person or from culture to culture, but its presence in some form is the common thread.

I would be surprised to hear of a person who legitimately is unamused by music in any way. Music’s power to move us and alter our thoughts appears to be a universal experience.

If we admit that music has this effect on us, then we must also necessarily concede that…


A short cautionary tale about diving in headfirst.

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I was probably 15 or 16 years old when I started to develop an interest in reading serious nonfiction books and primary sources. In my case, it was philosophy, but I suppose it could be applied to any field of a similar nature.

I was flying through books and loving every second I was reading. I started with the usual suspects, , , , and .

These all are relatively short, easy to understand, and touch on meaningful topics. I had chosen them with that in mind.

All good things come to an end…


Elucidating a common misconception and its origins.

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I’ve become painfully aware of what can either be called an unfortunate misunderstanding or a deliberate misinterpretation. That being, Aristotle was somehow “anti-democracy.”

There is some basis for this thought, and I don’t blame people who get that impression. Well, I am of the opinion that some people are peddling this idea intentionally for their own ends, but we’ll get to that later.

Almost all lies have some basis in truth, no matter how egregious the jump in logic may be. I’m very confident in my assertion that the belief in question is a fallacious one.

His is where…


A nebulous concept simplified.

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If you’ve spent even a middling amount of time in intellectual circles, you will have heard the term “” thrown out at some point. The name of postmodernism is usually invoked in an ambiguous way where the speaker takes no time to elaborate on what specifically they are referring to.

Sometimes it can feel as if the term “postmodern” just serves as a way for academics to say “weird” in a highbrow setting. In more egregious cases, it seems postmodernism acts as a for anything that is contrary to traditional norms.

People like come to mind…


How modern people can learn from the timeless teachings of an ancient man.

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Stoicism has become a bit of a philosophical fad as of late, or at least it seems that way to me. Even people who have no interest in philosophy are probably familiar with some tenets of stoic ideas. That isn’t surprising when you consider that, by its nature, stoicism is an explicitly pragmatic philosophy that appeals to ordinary people.

better than any other thinker under the category. He was a candidly common and humble man. He wasn’t some obscure intellectual who came up with esoteric theories about who knows what. …


Maybe he was but cut the guy some slack.

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If you engage frequently with the writings of Aristotle, you’re bound to have somebody tell you something along the lines of, “” What surprises me every time I hear claims like these is the seemingly blatant disregard for the conditions Aristotle lived under. I mean, we’re talking about someone who was

I’m going to attempt to familiarize you with the accusations levied against him and attempt to make a case for why we should be more forgiving when we point out his faults.

Physics and Cosmology

Among his most cartoonish claims by today’s standards…

Stanley Burnski

Professional layman and mediocre sophist with an interest in many things.

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